Solid-state amorphization of crystalline rebamipide (RBM) was realized by ball milling and spray drying. The amorphous content of samples milled for various time was quantified using X-ray powder diffraction. Crystalline RBM and three amorphous RBM obtained by milling and spray drying were character …

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Figure 1: CrI% for chitin samples, before and after milling in a jar with one ball made of SS, ZrO 2, Cu, Al, brass, WC, PMMA, PTFE. One series has ball mass = 2 g (blue) and one ball diameter = 9.5 mm (in orange). Experimental …

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63 0.53 to 0.15, but are not sufficient to achieve total amorphization. Schenzel and co-workers 64 (Schenzel et al., 2005) obtained a totally amorphous cellulose after 30 hours of milling, and 65 mixed amorphous and un-milled cellulose to …

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Ball milling: a green technology for the preparation and functionalisation of nanocellulose derivatives Carmen C. Piras, a Susana Fernandez-Prieto´ b and Wim M. De Borggraeve *a Ball milling is a simple, fast, cost-effective green technology with enormous potential.

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The structural changes of crystalline atorvastatin upon high-energy ball milling at room temperature have been studied. The study investigates the effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) polymeric matrix on stabilizing amorphous atorvastatin before and after storage under ambient and elevated humidity conditions. The …

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The main problem of using ball milling for the amorphization of cellulose is the high cost of this process, estimated at $ 10–15 per kg. In addition, the obtained amorphized cellulose has an unstable phase state and recrystallizes in a humid atmosphere or aqueous medium [ 36 ].

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Particle size distribution. The size of the cellulose particles was reduced by media milling (Fig. 1).The particle size distribution (by volume and number) of UC and 4% MC for different milling ...

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Abstract This study investigated the characteristics of cellulose Avicel PH-101 (NPA) and Avicel samples treated by either ball milling (BMA) or ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (ILA), which alter cellulose structural properties specifically and, consequently, affect the enzymatic hydrolysis of these materials differently. All materials were submitted to 48 h …

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Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass with the usage of ball milling pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The sugar yields from lignocellulosic feed stocks are critical parameters for ethanol …

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Purpose To quantify the effects of the ratio of indomethacin to Neusilin US2 and the processing humidity on the amorphization kinetics, stability and nature of the interaction. Materials and Methods A porcelain jar mill with zirconia balls was used to affect conversion of the physical mixtures (48 g) of indomethacin and Neusilin US2 (in the ratios 1:1 to 1:5) to amorphous …

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Amorphization of the TRP enantiomers, the TRP racemate and the TRP conglomerate was accomplished by oscillatory BM (Mixer Mill MM400, Retsch, Haan, Germany) using two stainless steel balls (Ø 12 mm) for each milling jar at a frequency of 30 Hz. The ball mill was placed in a cold room (6 °C) to prevent possible recrystallization induced by ...

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All data were examined based on three to four different measurement values and standard deviation. Metric data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey–Kramer's post hoc test at a significance level of 0.05. Results Changes in the physicochemical properties in the amorphization process of atorvastatin by ball ...

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The estimated marginal means of Factor A, i.e., mass ratio of milling ball to cellulose pulp, and its profile plot are shown in Table 5 and Fig. 2, respectively. The results disclose that the percentage of CNFs increased when the mass ratio of milling ball to cellulose pulp increased from 40% (level 1) to 60% (level 2) and finally to 80% (level 3).

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The extent of this decrease was different for all samples: acid-washed cellulose was the most affected, and after two hours its DP dropped to 192; Sigmacell 20 was the least affected, reaching 218 after two hours of milling; microcrystalline cellulose remained the least polymerized at all milling times, dropping from 114 to 102 (10%).

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FTIR analysis is a very useful technique to monitor structural changes undergone by cellulose during chemical and mechanical treatments (Avella et al., 2007, Avella et al., 2008, Princi et al., 2006).Fig. 1 shows normalized ATR-FTIR spectra of neat cellulose and cellulose ball milled at different milling time in those regions in which relevant changes in the spectra were …

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Effect of ball-milling pretreatment on pyrolysis characteristics of cellulose was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at four different heating …

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Among the different pre-treatments used for enhancing the reactivity of cellulose, ball-milling has been identified as one of the most effective. 63 Ball-milling is known to affect various structural properties of cellulose, including the particle size and crystallinity. 64 To understand how structural properties evolved with treatment time and ...

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Samples of ball milled cellulose were prepared by ball milling pulps from eucalyptus and softwood (spruce/pine). Water sorption isotherms were obtained by both …

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The samples obtained during ball milling of zeolite ZSM-5 were characterized by different methods such as X-ray diffractometry, scanning-electron microscopy, FTi.r. spectrometry, and simultaneous thermal analysis.The milling caused considerable change of morphological and particulate properties followed by loss of crystallinity of the treated zeolite.

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Chen X, Zhang Y, Mei J et al (2019) Ball milling for cellulose depolymerization and alcoholysis to produce methyl levulinate at mild temperature. Fuel Process Technol 188:129–136. Google Scholar 93. Liu H, Chen X, Ji G, et al (2019) Mechanochemical deconstruction of lignocellulosic cell wall polymers with ball-milling.

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This paper will discuss the nanocrystalline structures observed by ball-milling of 1) Ni~A1, where partial amorphization occurs, 2) Ni3Si, where amorphization is not seen, and 3) Nb3Sn, where complete amorphization occurs. The hardness of nanocrystalline Nb3Sn will be compared to that of nanocrystalline Fe, both prepared by ball-milling.

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DSC). Typically, 10 mg of sample was placed in an alumina pan under dry N. 2. flow (100 mL/min) and heated at a rate of 10 °C/min to 1000 °C. Before TGA measurements, all samples were degased thoroughly under vacuum (< 1 mbar) at 150 °C for 5 hours. Table S3: Decomposition temperatures of a. m. Milling Time/min ZIF-8 milled for different times.

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Microcrystalline cellulose was milled by ball milling to prepare cellulose ultrafine powder. The cellulose ultrafine powder samples treated for different time were characterized by IR, NMR, XRD and SEM.

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Ball milling is a simple, fast, cost-effective green technology with enormous potential. One of the most interesting applications of this technology in the field of cellulose is the preparation and the chemical modification of cellulose …

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stainless balls. The ball milling time, rotational speed, ball to cellulose ratio, ball diameters and MC of the raw pulp materials were in-vestigated using the single factor experiments described as following (Table 1), two replications were tested for each condition. Table 1 Ball mill single factor e ff ect study. Sample sets Ball milling ...

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To investigate the effect of ball mill treatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) on the rheological properties of MCC-polymer suspension, the structure and physicochemical characteristics of ground samples with different milling time and the rheological behaviors of MCC-starch suspensions were determined and comprehensively analyzed.

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